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willedoo last won the day on September 23

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About willedoo

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  1. Thanks for that link, Octave; very interesting reading. I read a book review some time back; one of those post apocalyptic type fiction books. It was set in about 2030, and the world financial system had crashed completely leaving the petro dollar worthless. The government had enacted laws to confiscate all privately held gold and made the possession of it a serious crime. The theme being that gold will be worth something when nothing else is. I don't know how accurate it is, but I've read where the amount of paper gold in the world far exceeds the amount of physical gold ever mined. Countries that are trying to limit their vulnerability to the U.S. based financial system are buying actual physical gold instead of paper. Russia is a good example. In the last 12 months, they've nearly halved their holdings of U.S. debt, and have been buying Euros and Yuan instead, as well as building physical gold stocks. At least that way, if it all hits the fan, they'll have real gold and not pieces of paper.
  2. Alexei Leonov's suit was a previous pressure suit design adapted for space walk activities (EVA). It was the same suit they wore inside the Voskhod 2 capsule. It was a fairly simple suit of four layers with an inner ventilation layer, two rubber pressure bladders (one for backup) and an outer restraining layer. On top of all that was an external thermal covering suit. The O2 from the backpack cylinders entered the helmet for breathing then made it's way to the suit for pressurization, then vented to atmosphere (or lack of), purging the CO2 as it went. The umbilical cord had an emergency oxygen line connected to bottles in the external airlock. I guess the fact it was an adapted suit design, plus lack of adequate testing and lack of real time weightlessness, all had a bearing on Leonov's problems. He was quoted by some sources as saying his hands came out of the gloves and his feet out of the boots. Maybe due to lack of gravity, he was floating inside the suit. The suit for the next space walk fixed a few of the issues. That was the Soyuz 4 & 5 docking and crew transfer. It was a purpose built EVA suit donned inside the Soyuz before the walk. A lot more complex suit, but also another rush job. It was a closed loop oxygen system with CO2 sinks to trap the CO2. As a comparison, Leonov's suit was like a continuous flow oxygen mask (as in emergency drop down in aircraft) to provide breathing and pressurization, and the Soyuz suit more like a pressure demand mask in function. The Soyuz suit also had to have a working cooling system with heat sinks in the backpack, to enable a longer walk time. Alexei Leonov's walk was only 12 minutes, so he handled the heat buildup ok without cooling. The Soyuz EVA suit was also tailored to the standing position (to don inside the capsule), so probably had better flexibility in the space walk position, compared to Leonov's Berkut suit. The Soyuz Yastreb suit also carried the life support backpack at the front of the knees to be able to get through the 600mm hatch. Another design issue was the world's first use of high pressure oxygen storage bottles, so a lot of work was done on reducers, the valve system etc.. A lot of detail quoted here is based on information in the book 'Russian Spacesuits' by Abramov & Scoog. It's co-authored by several NPP Zvezda design engineers and managers, so is the most qualified work on the subject. A good read and reference book if you're a life support nerd. It seems like space walks and other activities at the ISS are routine now, but back in the earlier days of the Russian and American space programmes, a lot of missions were breaking new ground with all the associated risks. I guess the crews were prepared to run the risk to experience what few others get to do.
  3. That's close to what happened except the Wikipedia article is not quite correct. The author is citing journalists who oversimplified it somewhat, and reports of it ballooning are not right. The suit didn't inflate anymore than normal. At it's operating pressure of 5.8psi, it stays the same dimensions whether in the vacuum of space or during testing on Earth. The original specs were for an operating pressure of 3.9psi, with an optional higher setting of 5.8 for use in case of decompression sickness. After ground testing, Zvezda decided to go the reverse, with a normal operating pressure of 5.8psi (400hPa), and a lower setting of 3.9psi (270hPa) for short periods to increase suit flexibility. The problem was that the suit had unexpected extra stiffness due to a combination of pressure and zero gravity conditions, and he couldn't bend enough to get back to the lock. They didn't have hydro lab testing in those days and the suit was only tested for seconds at a time in zero gravity conditions on board the flying laboratory. It wasn't enough time to get an indication of the suit stiffness problem. Leonov reduced the pressure to 270hPa which gave enough flexibility to eventually get back in. They say he went head first into the air lock instead of feet first, then had a bit of trouble turning around inside the air lock. The heart rate sensors recorded a fairly high heartbeat with all this going on. It sounds like the pressure was too high in the first place. A lot of those Soviet programmes were rushed time wise. Full credit to the pioneering cosmonauts and the American astronauts for their bravery.
  4. https://parksaustralia.gov.au/uluru/do/walks/uluru-base-walk/
  5. R.I.P. Alexei Leonov. First man to perform a space walk, passed away today.
  6. It's the sharks providing the cover who have the teeth.
  7. This colourised photo is of female U-2 pilots from the 46th Taman Guards Night Bomber Regiment in Crimea, 1944. Looking at what they are doing, it must be a posed PR/propaganda photo. They're probably supposed to look like they are pushing a bogged truck. It looks like the pilot on the left hand corner of the truck has lost her hand-hold and is about to fall on her backside in the mud. No wonder the people in the background are laughing. It's amazing how they can colour these old b&w photos; even the resolution quality seems way better than the original. Must be good software.
  8. It's got all the makings of a soap opera. Rumours are getting about that Clinton and Romney might have a go at it if Ukraine sidelines Biden, and Bernie's heart attack stops him. It reminds me of being at a certain outback annual race meeting years ago. They only had seven horses show up, so they raced the same horses round and round all day.
  9. I guess a lot of Joe Biden's political future will depend on what happens in Ukraine between now and his possible nomination. If the Ukraine President is impeached and the public prosecutor reopens the closet, things might go bad. Trump knows Ukraine is Joe Biden's Achilles Heel, so the more he goes hard on it, the more distraction from Trump's own failings. But I doubt the Ukraine thing will go too far; there's too many skeletons in the cupboard for it to get too big. Re: the Kurds, you could see that coming. I really feel sorry for them and they probably didn't have much option but to go with the U.S.. The risk the Americans are taking is that one day most will see their word as worthless. When that happens, it will be a lot harder for them to try to forge deals.
  10. willedoo


    Closest I've been to it is repeatedly crashing a cheap RC helicopter. I don't know if a quadcopter is any easier; just a matter of practice I'd imagine.
  11. Bruce, there could be some truth in the theory.
  12. I've heard of a mother in law looking like a fish.
  13. willedoo


    It's crazy stuff; no winners in nuclear war. Conventional wars will get a lot more complicated as well, with all the new gadgetry coming on line these days. As shown recently with the Saudi refinery attacks, small drones and cruise missiles can fly below the horizon and get through billion dollar air defence systems. A former director of the Israel Missile Defence Organisation has said they need systems like the Russian Pantsir which has 30 millimetre automatic cannons equipped with infrared direction finders. But not a good chance of the U.S. allowing the Saudis to purchase Russian anti air systems. Maybe something that works along the lines of a bigger version claymore would help. It might become a real problem in the future trying to defend against cheap and easily built drone systems. The potential for drones seems endless, from weapons delivery to electronic warfare. The Russians have trialled using the Orlan-10 UAV to send false text messages to the enemy, instructing them to withdraw to an area to where a strike had been prepared. I wonder how war will go in the future if EW gets to the stage where everything gets jammed and nothing goes bang. They'll have to settle it with an arm wrestle. The catapult launched Orlan-10 looks like a model aeroplane.
  14. willedoo


    I thought the same thing, that the numbers called were way too low. And right about Pine Gap, one of the first on the list for sure.
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